Caffeine

Pre-viewing Discussion

1. What are some things that contain caffeine?

2. Why do some people consume caffeine?

Listening Preparation

We will watch a video that was made by native speakers, for native speakers. So, the narrator will speak very quickly, without stopping. Don’t worry, we will watch many times, for more information each time.

First Listening

The video explains the effect of caffeine on the brain. What three chemicals do they mention?

Answers

1. adenosine

2. adrenaline

3. dopamine

Second Listening

What do adenosine, adrenaline, and dopamine do?

Answers

Adenosine makes you feel sleepy.

Adrenaline increases your heart rate, blood flow, and opens up your airways.

Dopamine makes you feel happy.

Third Listening

1. How much of a traded commodity is coffee?
2. How does caffeine make you feel alert?
3. What can happen if you stop taking caffeine?
4. Caffeine has similar effect to what other drug (albeit to a lesser degree)?
5. Is caffeine addictive?
6. Can you die from too much caffeine? If so, how much would it take to kill a normal person? Is this likely to happen? Why or why not?
7. Why do some people drink coffee throughout the day?

Answers

1. How much of a traded commodity is coffee?
It’s the second-most traded, after oil.

2. How does caffeine make you feel alert?
It has a similar structure to adenosine, and so it blocks adenosine. It also releases adrenaline.

3. What can happen if you stop taking caffeine?
You can feel more sleepy than before because you have more adenosine receptors (tolerance).

4. Caffeine has similar effect to what other drug (albeit to a lesser degree)?
cocaine

5. Is caffeine addictive?
It’s moderately addictive.

6. Can you die from too much caffeine? If so, how much would it take to kill a normal person? Is this likely to happen? Why or why not?
Yes, but it’s not likely to happen. You would have to drink about 70 cups of coffee, which wouldn’t fit in your stomach.
Before you died you would experience hallucinations and mania.

7. Why do some people drink coffee throughout the day?
Caffeine has a half-life of six hours.

Post-watching Discussion

1. What’s your favorite kind of caffeinated beverage? Why?
2. Have you ever tried to stop taking caffeine? If so, what happened? If not, why not?
3. Do you like to go to coffee shops? What’s your favorite coffee shop? Why?

Bad Habit?

Pre-listening Exercise

This picture is taken from a video. What do you see? What do you think the video is about? What do you know about this topic?

vlcsnap-2015-11-24-18h09m43s76

First Video: Watching Exercise

(begins at 0:37)

. What is the video about?
. What percent of U.S. adults do it?
. How much money has it earned worldwide?
. Are its long-term effects known? Why or why not?

Answers

. What is the video about?

It’s about vaping/e-cigarettes, which put nicotine into inhalable steam.

. What percent of U.S. adults do it?

10%

. How much money has it earned worldwide?

6 billion dollars

. Are its long-term effects known? Why or why not?

No, because it’s so new.

Second Video: First Watching

. Is nicotine a depressant or a stimulant?

. How long does it take for the nicotine in a cigarette to reach your nervous system?

. Do e-cigarettes seem to be less harmful than cigarettes?

. Are we sure that e-cigarettes are safe?

. What are exhaled particles from vapourizers called?

. Has the use of e-cigarettes increased from grades 6 to 12?

Answers

. Is nicotine a depressant or a stimulant?

It’s a stimulant.

. How long does it take for the nicotine in a cigarette to reach your nervous system?

It takes 6 seconds.

. Do e-cigarettes seem to be less harmful than cigarettes?

Yes.

. Are we sure that e-cigarettes are safe?

No.

. What are exhaled particles from vapourizers called?

They’re called “ultrafine particles.”

. Has the use of e-cigarettes increased from grades 6 to 12?

Yes.

Second Video: Second Watching

. What four effects does nicotine have on the body?

. Smoke contains partially-burnt particles, which affect your body. What are these four effects?

. Why does “vaping” produce less smoke than cigarettes?

. E-cigarettes use a liquid solution. What are the three or four components of this liquid solution?

. One common base, called propylene glycol, is known to do what?

. Are the additives in e-liquids regulated?

. Some e-liquids have been found to contain diacetyl. What can inhalation of diacetyl lead to?

. What are ultrafine particles known to affect?

. How much has the use of e-cigarettes increased from grades 6 to 12?

Answers

. What four effects does nicotine have on the body?

The effects are: increased heart rate, constricted blood vessels, the release of dopamine in the brain, and feelings of alertness.

. Smoke contains partially-burnt particles, which affect your body. What are these four effects?

It creates tar in your body, has cancer-causing effects, blackens teeth, and destroys taste buds.

. Why does “vaping” produce less smoke than cigarettes?

Vaping keeps to a controlled temperature, creating a vapour with minimal combustion, meaning you inhale much less smoke.

. E-cigarettes use a liquid solution. What are the three or four components of this liquid solution?

The liquid solution contains water, nicotine, a base, and, occasionally, flavourings.

. One common base, called propylene glycol, is known to do what?

It’s known to cause irritation to the eyes and respiratory infections.

. Are the additives in e-liquids regulated?

No.

. Some e-liquids have been found to contain diacetyl. What can inhalation of diacetyl lead to?

Inhalation of diacetyl can lead to scarring in the lungs/irreversible lung damage (“popcorn lungs”).

. What are ultrafine particles known to affect?

They’re known to affect pulmonary health.

. How much has the use of e-cigarettes increased from grades 6 to 12?

It has increased from 6% to 20% over 3 years?

Extinctions

Pre-watching Discussion

. Look at the pictures. What do you see?
What do you think the video is about? Why do you think so?
What do you know about this topic?

vlcsnap-2015-11-18-14h38m13s50

vlcsnap-2015-11-18-14h40m32s97

vlcsnap-2015-11-18-14h41m34s197

Vocabulary

Match the vocabulary with their definitions.

1. absorb

2. acid rain

3. algae

4. asteroid

5. atmosphere

6. carbon dioxide

7. descendant

8. dinosaur

9. drain

10. extinct

11. glacier

12. impact

13. nutrient

14. ozone layer

15. rift

16. species

17. volcano

a. a set of animals or plants in which the members have similar characteristics to each other and can breed with each other

b. a large crack in the ground or in rock

c. no longer existing

d. the force or action of one object hitting another

e. the gas formed when carbon is burned, or when people or animals breathe out

f. a large mass of ice that moves slowly

g. a layer of air containing a form of oxygen high above the earth that prevents harmful ultraviolet light from the sun from reaching the earth

h. the mixture of gases around the earth

i. a mountain with a large, circular hole at the top through which lava (= hot liquid rock) gases, steam, and dust are or have been forced out

j. very simple, usually small plants that grow in or near water and do not have ordinary leaves or roots

k. rain that contains large amounts of harmful chemicals as a result of burning substances such as coal and oil

l. someone who is related to you and who lives after you, such as your child or grandchild

m. a type of reptile that became extinct about 65,000,000 years ago. There were many different types, some of which were extremely large.

n. to remove liquid

o. one of many large rocks that circle the sun

p. any substance that plants or animals need in order to live and grow

q. to take something in, especially gradually

Answers

absorb: to take something in, especially gradually

acid rain: rain that contains large amounts of harmful chemicals as a result of burning substances such as coal and oil

algae: very simple, usually small plants that grow in or near water and do not have ordinary leaves or roots

asteroid: one of many large rocks that circle the sun

atmosphere: the mixture of gases around the earth

carbon dioxide: the gas formed when carbon is burned, or when people or animals breathe out:

descendant: someone who is related to you and who lives after you, such as your child or grandchild

dinosaur: a type of reptile that became extinct about 65,000,000 years ago. There were many different types, some of which were extremely large.

drain: to remove liquid

extinct: no longer existing

glacier: a large mass of ice that moves slowly

impact: the force or action of one object hitting another

nutrient: any substance that plants or animals need in order to live and grow

ozone layer: a layer of air containing a form of oxygen high above the earth that prevents harmful ultraviolet light from the sun from reaching the earth

rift: a large crack in the ground or in rock

species: a set of animals or plants in which the members have similar characteristics to each other and can breed with each other

volcano: a mountain with a large, circular hole at the top through which lava (= hot liquid rock) gases, steam, and dust are or have been forced out

First Listening Exercise

. What percentage of animals who have ever lived are now extinct?

. How many extinctions does the video mention?

. When did they happen?

. What percentage of animals who have ever lived are now extinct?

Over 99%.

. How many extinctions does the video mention?

Five (possibly six).

. When did they happen?

first 440 million years ago
second 374 million years ago
third 250 million years ago
fourth 200 million years ago
fifth 55 million years ago
sixth(?) right now

Second Listening Exercise

. During each of the mass extinctions, what percentage of species became extinct?

. After each of the mass extinctions, what species survived and became successful?

Answers

. During each of the mass extinctions, what percentage of species became extinct?

first: 86%
second: over half of all ocean life
third: 70% of land life, 95% of ocean life
fourth: around 80%
fifth: all large dinosaurs
sixth(?): don’t know yet

. After each of the mass extinctions, what species survived and became successful?

first: fish, plants, and flying insects
second: a small family of fish with foot-like fins and lungs
third: early small dinosaurs
fourth: dinosaurs
fifth: mammals, birds (descendants of small dinosaurs)
sixth(?): don’t know yet

Third Listening Exercise

. What caused each of the mass extinctions?

Answers

. What caused each of the mass extinctions?

first: Newly-created volcanic rock absorbed carbon dioxide (CO2). As a result, temperatures fell and water became ice. This caused ocean levels to drop and shallow seas to drain. There were several cycles of growing and shrinking glaciers.

second: Plants absorbed enough carbon dioxide to create global cooling. This changed soil, causing nutrients to wash into the ocean, creating enormous amounts of algae, which sucked up oxygen. More than half of the ocean’s species essentially choked to death.

third: Billions of tons of volcanic gases destroyed the ozone layer, and the average ocean temperature hit 40 degrees Celcius. Acid rain fell all over the planet.

fourth: A huge volcanic rift opened, eventually splitting the Americas from Europe and Africa, and forming the Atlantic Ocean. Volcanoes spewed out carbon dioxide (CO2), increasing temperatures.

fifth: An asteroid the size of a small town crashed into the earth. The impact shot millions of tons of dust up into the atmosphere, blocking out sunlight.

sixth(?): Carbon dioxide levels have climbed at least 25% in just the last 50 years, almost no time in geological terms. In addition to climate change, humans have exterminated hundreds of species by hunting, fishing, habitat destruction, and pollution. It’s been estimated that the current species extinction rate is between one hundred and one thousand times higher than the natural background rate.

Post-listening Discussion

. Can you name some species that are extinct?
. Which species do you think might become extinct in the future?
. Should humans be concerned about causing mass extinctions? Why or why not?

The Science of Superheroes

Pre-listening Discussion

* Superhero movies are very popular nowadays (The Avengers, X-men, Spiderman, Superman, Batman, etc.). Which superhero movies have you watched? Which ones are your favorites? Why?

* Do you think a superhero could be real? Why or why not?

First Listening

Which superhero is the video talking about?

a. Hulk
b. Iron Man
c. Spiderman
d. Superman
e. Thor

Second Listening

* Spiderman was genetically changed when a spider bit him. For that to happen, what would the spider have to do? Why?

* What would the new genetic information do?

* How strong is spider silk?

* How thin is spider silk?

* Spider silk can catch insects that are going how fast?

* What could spider silk do if it were an inch thick?

* How strong are spiders?

* Why are spiders so strong?

* How could a person’s strength be increased?

* How can spiders climb walls?

* When spiders climb walls, what is their “sticking” strength?

* In the comic books, Spiderman has a “spider sense.” Do spiders have a “spider sense”? If so, how?

Answers

* Spiderman was genetically changed when a spider bit him. For that to happen, what would the spider have to do? Why?

The spider would have to release a retrovirus into his body. Retroviruses carry genetic information that is inserted into the DNA of a cell.

* What would the new genetic information do?

The cell then reads the new DNA to create new functions and proteins.

* How strong is spider silk?

It’s stronger than steel.

* How thin is spider silk?

It’s 1/10th (10%) the diameter of a human hair.

* Spider silk can catch insects that are going how fast?

It can catch insects that are going 15 miles an hour.

* What could spider silk do if it were an inch thick?

It could stop a fighter jet.

* How strong are spiders?

They can lift up to 50 times their body weight.

* Why are spiders so strong?

Spiders are so strong because they are small.

* How could a person’s strength be increased?

A person could become stronger if more actin and myosin proteins were produced.

* How can spiders climb walls?

Spiders have tiny hairs on their legs. These hairs create electrostatic forces.

* When spiders climb walls, what is their “sticking” strength?

Spiders can stick to wall with 170 times their own weight.

* In the comic books, Spiderman has a “spider sense.” Do spiders have a “spider sense”? If so, how?

Spiders hairs are extremely sensitive to vibrations and air pressure changes.

Post-listening Discussion

. Would you want to be a superhero? Why or why not?

. If you could be a superhero, which super powers would you want? Why?

. If superheroes existed, do you think they should be forced to reveal their real identities to the police? Why or why not?

Nine Scientific Study Tips

Pre-viewing Discussion

. What do you study at Inha University? Do you like it? Why or why not?
. How often do you study?
. How do you study? (Do you have any study methods?)

First Listening Exercise

What nine scientific study tips does the video mention? Write a sentence describing each one.

Answers

1. Have many short study sessions.

2. Set up specific study times during the day or week.

3. Don’t passively reread notes or highlight textbooks. Make flashcards.

4. Have a specific goal for each study session.

5. Study as if you were going to teach the material, instead of studying it as if you were going to be tested on it.

6. Do practice tests.

7. Have a designated study area with all of the tools that you need.

8. Don’t listen to music while listening.

9. Put away your cell-phone.

Second Listening Exercise

For each study method, write down how or why they work.

Answers

1. Have many short study sessions.

The brain is better at encoding information into the synapses in short, repeated sessions as opposed to one, large one.

2. Set up specific study times during the day or week.

After prolonged nocturnal study sessions, reasoning and memory may be negatively affected for up to four whole days.
Setting up specific times in the day or during the week just to study primes your brain by creating a routine, and over time, studying actually becomes easier as your brain is trained to learn in those moments.

3. Don’t passively reread notes or highlight textbooks. Make flashcards.

Passively rereading notes or highlighting textbooks doesn’t improve your understanding of topics nor does it link key concepts together. It can even be detrimental as it draws your attention to less-important information.
Flashcards are proven to be excellent memory reinforcement tools, whether during your scheduled study times, or during off-times, like a bus ride home.

4. Have a specific goal for each study session.

Pick one aspect that you’ll focus on, whether it’s chemical equations or learning how to conjugate French verbs. If you can’t explain it simply, then you don’t understand it well enough.

5. Study as if you were going to teach the material, instead of studying it as if you were going to be tested on it.

When you’re expecting to teach, your brain organizes the information in a more logical, coherent structure.

6. Do practice tests.

If you make mistakes, they help identify gaps in your knowledge. Practice tests also increase confidence, thereby leading to better performance.

7. Have a designated study area with all of the tools that you need.

As with setting study times, this primes your brain for studying.

8. Don’t listen to music while listening.

While some studies have shown that certain types of classical music can help improve concentration, another study has shown that learning with rhythmic background noise can be detrimental to focus, and those not using music fared much better.

9. Put away your cell-phone.

Your texts and social media notifications severely decrease concentration.

Post-listening Discussion

. Did any of these study methods surprise you? Why?

. Do you already use any of these methods? Which ones?

. Do you know of other methods other than those mentioned in the video? What are they? Why do you think they work?

Halloween Special

First Listening Exercise

What is this video about?

a. Frankenstein’s monster

b, ghosts

c. vampires

d. werewolves

e. zombies

Second Listening Exercises

1. What are some places with vampire myths?

2. However, one place and time had the most influence over vampire myths. When and where?

3. Why did people at the place and time believe so much in vampires?

4. When people dug up dead bodies, they found “evidence” that the bodies were coming back to life. What was this “evidence”?

5. However, there are scientific explanations for this “evidence.” What is it?

6. Bram Stoker wrote the most famous novel about vampires, “Dracula.” He described many traits. Which ones were part of local legends? Which ones did Stoker make up?

Answers

1. What are some places with vampire myths?

Mesopotamia, Greece, the Philippines, Malaysia, Australia, the Caribbean, West Africa, and Mexico.

2. However, one place and time had the most influence over vampire myths. When and where?

18th-century Eastern Europe

3. Why did people at the place and time believe so much in vampires?

There were many deaths occurring from unknown diseases and plagues. Without medical explanations, people searched for supernatural causes.

4. When people dug up dead bodies, they found “evidence” that the bodies were coming back to life. What was this “evidence”?

The dead bodies had longer hair and fingernails, bloated bellies, and blood at the corners of their mouths.

5. However, there are scientific explanations for this “evidence.” What is it?

When a body decomposes, the skin dehydrates, causing the hair and fingernails to extend. Bacteria in the stomach creates gases that filled the belly, which forced out blood through the mouth.

6. Bram Stoker wrote the most famous novel about vampires, “Dracula.” He described many traits. Which ones were part of local legends? Which ones did Stoker make up?

Traits of vampires from legends were: Transylvania, using garlic to defend oneself, and the staking of the heart.

Traits invented by Stoker were: fear of crucifixes, weakness in sunlight, and the vampires’ inability to see their reflection.

Post-listening Discussion

* Why do you think people are so fascinated by vampires?
* Do you think vampires are attractive? Would you like to meet one? Why or why not?
* What are some Korean mythical creatures? Describe them.
* Do you think there are any mythical creatures that you think could be real?
– If not, why not?
– If so, which ones?
* Have you ever participated in Halloween?
– If you have, what was it like?
– If you haven’t, would you like to? Why or why not?
* If you went to a Halloween party, what kind of costume would you wear? Why?
* What’s the most memorable horror movie that you’ve ever seen?
* What are you scared of?
* Have you ever participated in role-playing games (e.g. Dungeons and Dragons, World of War-craft, etc.)? If so, what kind of character did you choose? Why did you choose that kind of character?
* Why do you think people like to participate in role-playing games?

Sports and Science

First Watching

* What is it about?

* Have you ever done something like that?

If so, when? What kind of event was it? How well did you do?

If not, then why not?

Second (and Third …) Watching

* When was the first marathon?

* Where did it happen? And why?

* What is the only other kind of animal that walks for long periods of time?

* When did our ancestors first stand up?
* What are some of the few animals with as much endurance as humans?

* What is the “Endurance Running Hypothesis”?

* What are some aspects of our anatomy that help us run? How do they help us run?

* Every time your body hits the ground, it delivers up to _____ times the force of your body weight.
* What is the body’s energy or power? What organelles produce it?

* The body of the man in the video recycled almost ____ kg of his body’s energy during his marathon. That’s equivalent to about _____ of TNT.
* When you run fast, your body uses the process called ____________________ . When your run more slowly, your body uses a processes called the ____________________ and the ____________________ . Which process is more efficient?
* What is “carbo-loading”? Why do people running long races have to do it?

* What is “hitting the wall”?

__Answers__

* When was the first marathon?

It happended in 490 BC

* Where did it happen? And why?

It happened in Greece.

A messenger was sent from Marathon to Athens to send the news that the Greeks had defeated the Persians.

* What is the only other kind of animal that walks for long periods of time?

Certain species of birds are the only other animal that walks for long periods of time.

* When did our ancestors first stand up?

Our ancestors first stood up around 3 million years ago.

* What are some of the few animals with as much endurance as humans?

Ostriches, camels, wolves, and reindeer

* What is the “Endurance Running Hypothesis”?

Our endurance helped our ancestors to hunt animals by running them to exhaustion.

* What are some aspects of our anatomy that help us run? How do they help us run?

– large ear canals help us to balance

– reflexes in our eyes keep our heads steady as we move up and down

– short arms and thin ankles take less effort to swing

– wide shoulders, thin waist, and a narrow pelvis help us counter the rotation of our moving legs

– sweat glands, less body hair, and tall, thin bodies help us disperse heat

– better blood flow away from the brain to keep it cool

– big gluteus maximus muscles to stabalize our upper body

– high-surface knee, ankle and hip joints for shock absorption

* Everytime your body hits the ground, it delivers up to _8_ times the force of your body weight.

* What is the body’s energy or power? What organelles produce it?

ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) is produced by mitochondria

* The body of the man in the video recycled almost _75_ kg of his body’s energy during his marathon. That’s equivalent to about _1 kilogram_ of TNT.

* When you run fast, your body uses the process called _Glycolysis_ . When your run more slowly, your body uses a processes called the _Krebs Cycle_ and the _Electron Transport Chain_ . Which process is more efficient?

* What is “carbo-loading”? Why do people running long races have to do it?

It’s eating a lot of carbohydrates (rice, pasta, bread, waffles, etc.) to store more glycogen in the body.

* What is “hitting the wall”?

It’s when your muscles run out of glycogen and thus run out of ATP. The biggest reason is because the brain also uses blood sugar, and will shut down the muscles when blood sugar is too low.